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University of Pennsylvania research -

Influence of delivery method on neonatal canine viability parameters

B.B. Beall, M. L. Casal
School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA

While many important clinical parameters are used to asses viability, clinical outcome and pathology have been well-established in human neonates, foals, calves, and piglets; they are virtually unknown during the immediate postpartum period in the puppy. The aim of this study was to develop a database on neonatal puppies delivered via vaginal delivery, elective cesarean section, and emergency cesarean section and correlate the values with subjective assessment of viability. Preliminary studies involved 9 puppies from three litters that were born by natural vaginal delivery (Group A) and 3 puppies from one litter that were delivered by emergency cesarean section(Group B).
Hematology samples were collected via venipuncture of the jugular vein. All samples were collected within 26 minutes of birth. Significant differences were noted between Group A and B in serum glucose concentrations (111±38 vs 54±17 mg/dl), blood urea nitrogen (22.8±5.1 vs 8.0±7.1 mg/dl), and pO2 (34.1±12.0 vs53.7±18.2 mmHg). However, all values were within normal adult ranges. There were no significant differences between the rest of the measured values but the following trends were observed: APGAR scores and Doppler blood pressures were higher in Group A than B, while pCO2 and sO2 were higher in Group B than A. The ranges in serum glucose, sodium, chloride, lactate, HCO3, base excess, and sO2 were much wider in Group A than B while blood pressure ranges were wider in Group B. Lactate concentrations were higher, while pH and HCO3 levels were lower, in all puppies when compared to normal adults, indicating lactic acidosis and tissue hypoxia. There was no difference in the degree of lactic acidosis between Groups A and B and base excess was lower in all puppies. Interestingly, there was no correlation between lower APGAR scores and the degree of acidosis, blood glucose levels or any other parameter measured. In conclusion, significant differences in serum glucose, blood urea nitrogen and pO2 exist between puppies delivered via natural vaginal delivery and via emergency cesarean section. Furthermore, these results suggest that significant lactic acidosis is present in puppies immediately after birth, but that there is no significant difference in degree of acidosis between puppies delivered via natural vaginal delivery and emergency cesarean section. However, the presence of acidosis in all puppies did not appear to impact viability as all puppies thrived past the neonatal period. Further studies will aim to expand the number of puppies assessed in Groups A and B, as well as include puppies from another group, planned cesarean section, and examine how long after birth lactic acidosis is present.
Keywords: Pediatrics, neonatal, dog, hypoxia, cesarean section

 

University of Minnesota research

Evaluation of parameters for canine breeding management using banked serum

This is a report regarding the project funded by the Theriogenology Foundation entitled, "Evaluation of parameters for canine breeding management using banked serum.” This study provided funding to support a 4th year veterinary student with collection and analysis of data from banked serum samples linked with medical records at a private small animal hospital.

Data collection was completed by the end of 2011. Initial data analysis revealed the following:

  • Data was compiled from 576 dogs of 88 breeds. The Labrador retriever was the most common breed.
  • Serum progesterone concentration was measured bychemiluminescence and serum luteinizing hormone (LH) concentration was measured by ELISA. Serum progesterone concentration on the day of the LH peak was about 3 ng/ml in this population.
  • Serum progesterone concentration on breeding day did not differbetween unsuccessful and successful breeding attempts for a given type of semen and insemination except for vaginal insemination of fresh semen, for which lower serum progesterone was associated with successful breeding, and for surgical insemination of frozen semen, for which higher serum progesterone was associated with successful breeding. Serum progesterone concentration at the time of breeding was significantly higher for chilled semen and frozen semen breedings than for breeding with fresh semen, either by natural service or artificial insemination.
  • No correlation was evident overall between litter size and serumprogesterone concentration at the time of breeding.
  • Statistics regarding effect of age at the time of breeding are not yet complete and will require service of a statistical analyst because of confounding factors regarding type of semen and insemination performed.

Take-home messages for the student, who will be employed at the clinic from which this data was drawn: 

  • The student demonstrated to me clear knowledge of the use ofserum progesterone and LH measurement for breeding management, pros and cons of various types of semen and insemination techniques, and how to evaluate a given bitch to optimize conception rate.
  • The clinic overall success rate for chilled and frozen semenapproximates that for natural service in this population, suggesting they are doing a good job with reproductive services provided. A fair number of bitches were lost to follow-up and the student already is working on a mechanism to better capture that data.  

Future plans:

  • Several hundred serum progesterone samples were shipped to Clinitox Diagnostics in Ontario, which is validating a new in-house progesterone assay for practitioners (ZAP™ progesterone assay). In return, Clinitox Diagnostics will supply us with test kits for our own validation series, which we hope to complete in 2012.
  • Raeana Rice and Peggy Root Kustritz will present all of this data at the 2013 annual meeting in Louisville, Kentucky.They thank the Theriogenology Foundation for funding this effort, which was an excellent learning experience for Raeana and will introduce her to the opportunity of a continuing role within the Society for Theriogenology.
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